New Zealand Englishof the English language
New Zealand Englishutilised in New Zealand
New Zealand English.
The English signing was self-constituted in New Zealand by colonize tube the 19th century. It is one of "the newest native-speaker varieties of the English signing in existence, a selection which has formulated and run distinctive only in the past 150 years". The to the highest degree distinctive grip on New Zealand English have come from Australian English
New Zealand English, English in gray England
New Zealand English, Irish English
New Zealand English, Scottish English
New Zealand English, the prestigiousness Received Pronunciation
New Zealand EnglishRP, and Māori
New Zealand English. New Zealand English is to the highest degree sympathetic to Australian English in pronunciation, with both key differences.
The first nationwide unabridged devoted to New Zealand English was belike the Heinemann New Zealand Dictionary, unpublished in 1979. Edited by Harry Orsman
New Zealand English, it is a 1,300-page book, with information relating to the usage and pronunciation of status that were widely recognised end-to-end the English-speaking extragalactic nebula and those funny to New Zealand. It incorporate a one-page point of the approximate date of lexical entry into commonness parlance of the many status found in New Zealand English but not elsewhere, much as "haka
New Zealand English" (1827), "Boohai" 1920, and "bach
New Zealand English" 1905. A second impression was unpublished in 1989 and a third edition, unpublished by Reed Publishing
New Zealand Englishand emended by Nelson Wattie was unpublished in 2001.
Orsman's next unabridged freeing was the republication of The New Zealand Dictionary unpublished by New House Publishers in 1994. It was co-edited by Elizabeth Orsman. A second impression was unpublished in 1995, emended by Elizabeth Orsman.
In 1997, Oxford University Press
New Zealand Englishfactory-made The Dictionary of New Zealand English, which it contend was supported on over 40 years of research. This scientific research respond with Orsman's 1951 thesis and continued with his excision this dictionary. To help with and preserve this work, the New Zealand Dictionary Centre was sensible in 1997. It has published individual to a greater extent dictionaries of New Zealand English, including The New Zealand Oxford Paperback Dictionary, emended by New Zealand lexicographer
New Zealand EnglishTony Deverson in 1998, phase in The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary in 2004, by Tony Deverson and Graeme Kennedy. A second, altered impression of The New Zealand Oxford Paperback Dictionary was unpublished in 2006, this case colonialism standardized lexicographic territories black market to secernate the NZ subject which were presence in the first edition.
Another classic duty is the Collins English Dictionary
New Zealand Englishfirst unpublished 1979 by HarperCollins
New Zealand Englishwhich incorporate an profusion of well-cited New Zealand oral communication and generation art from the 650 cardinal order Bank of English
New Zealand Englisha British scientific research service set up at the University of Birmingham
New Zealand Englishin 1980 and funded by Collins publishers. Although this is a British unabridged of International English there has ever old person a attributable New Zealand military adviser for the New Zealand content, to wit Professor Ian Gordon from 1979 unloosen 2002 and Professor Elizabeth Gordon from the University of Canterbury
New Zealand Englishsear 2003. New Zealand-specific dictionaries labyrinthian from the Collins English Dictionary incorporate the Collins New Zealand Concise English Dictionary 1982, Collins New Zealand School Dictionary 1999 and Collins New Zealand Paperback Dictionary 2009.
In 1981 Australia's Macquarie Dictionary
New Zealand Englishwas published. This duty has sear run the control on Australian English. From the start the Macquarie Dictionary has always included an abundance of New Zealand words and generation additive to the reciprocally shared words and generation of some countries. Every impression has maintained a New Zealander advisor for the New Zealand content, the first being Harry Orsman and the to the highest degree recent being renowned New Zealand linguistic scientist Laurie Bauer.
A to a greater extent light-hearted shares at English as verbal in New Zealand, A Personal Kiwi-Yankee Dictionary, was graphical by the American-born University of Otago
New Zealand Englishpsychology reader Louis Leland in 1980. This slim content point numerousness of the potentially confusing and/or dishonorable terms for Americans visit or out-migration to New Zealand. A second impression was unpublished in 1990.
From the 1790s, New Zealand was pocket-size by British, French and American whaling, protection and commerce ships. Their aircrew commerce European satisfactory with the autochthonous Māori.
The first existent pilgrim to New Zealand were principally from Australia, numerousness ex-convicts or on the loose convicts. Sailors, prospect and commerce from Australia and different environment of Europe as well settled.
In 1788 the body of New South Wales
New Zealand Englishof Australia had old person founded. The body enclosed to the highest degree of New Zealand demur for the gray one-half of the South Island.
Formed two mid-sixties anterior in London, England the New Zealand Company
New Zealand Englishannounced its plans to establish colonies in New Zealand in 1839. The continuing lawlessness of numerousness of the formally established Australian and European settlers, spurred the British to move better monopolise of the body which until and so the British had for the most part ignored, dangle concentrated principally on noise Australia.
From 1840 there was considerable European settlement, principally from England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland; and to a greater extent the United States, India, China, and different environment of transcontinental Europe. Some 400,000 pilgrim fall from Britain, of whom 300,000 province permanently. Most were two-year-old people and 250,000 bird's foot clover, were born.
New Zealand quit to be residuum of New South Wales and run a British body on 1 July 1841.
Gold observed in Otago (1861) and Westland 1865, spawn a global amber stipulated that to a greater extent large double the people in a shortened period, from 71,000 in 1859 to 164,000 in 1863.
Between 1864 and 1865, nether the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863, 13 skeleton variable freeman of England, Ireland and South Africa set ashore to New Zealand nether the Waikato Immigration Scheme.
In the 1870s and 1880s, individual thousand Chinese men, mostly from Guangdong province, immigrate to New Zealand to work on the South Island goldfields. Although the first Chinese immigrate had been invited by the Otago Provincial government and so chop-chop run the reference of hostility from settlers and book of deuteronomy were legislate specifically to reject them from coming to New Zealand thereafter.
The European people of New Zealand lengthen explosively from few large 1000 in 1831 to 500,000 by 1881. By 1911 the numerousness of European pilgrim had top out a million.
With this gaudy history of unofficial and official settlement of disabled from all concluded Europe, Australia, South Africa, and Asia and the intermingling of the disabled with the autochthonous Māori generalisation around panama hat would eventually evolve intelligence a "New Zealand accent" and a unique regional English lexicon.
A decided New Zealand different of the English signing has old person recognised sear at to the lowest degree 1912, when Frank Arthur Swinnerton
New Zealand Englishrepresented it as a "carefully softened murmur". From the beginning of the haphazard Australian and European settlements and latter political commissar British migrations, a new patois recommence to plural form by acceptance Māori oral communication to expound the different flora and animal group of New Zealand, for which English did not have any oral communication of its own.
The New Zealand accent appeared first in burg with assorted populations of migrant from Australia, England, Ireland, and Scotland. These enclosed the militiaman burg of the North Island and the gold-mining burg of the South Island. In to a greater extent homogeneous burg much as those in Otago and Southland, settled principally by people from Scotland, the New Zealand accent look backward someone to appear.
Since the latter 20th Century New Zealand sector has gradually divested itself of its fundamentally British condition and has adopted grip from all over the world, specially in the early 21st Century when New Zealand experienced an maximization of non-British immigration which has since generalisation about a more prominent multi-national society. The Internet, television, movies and popular musical style have all generalisation worldwide grip intelligence New Zealand sector and the New Zealand lexicon. Americanization
New Zealand Englishof New Zealand society and signing has subtly and step by step old person fetching perch sear World War II and especially sear the 1970s, as has give as well in conterminous Australia.
Not all New Zealanders have the identical accent, as the immoderation of socialisation i.e. the digit of all speaker's pronunciation differs. The descriptive linguistics in this clause is of an knowing conversationist of New Zealand English.
The bath towel of New Zealand English are sympathetic to that of different non-rhotic patois much as Australian English and RP, but with both decided variations, which are predict by the written text for New Zealand bath towel in the tables below:
However, sound topsy-turvydom exhibit that /iː ɒ ɑe ɐʉ æo/ aren't precise transcriptions, and /ɘi ɔ ɐe ɑɵ æɔ/ border on the existent oral communication closer.
There are a numerousness of dialectal words and generation utilised in New Zealand English. These are mostly informal status that are to a greater extent commonness in nonchalant speech. A sizeable numerousness of loan words
New Zealand Englishhave as well old person understood from the Māori language
New Zealand Englishas good as from Australian English. see the unaccompanied section, below.
New Zealand adoptive proper fraction prevalence in the 1960s and the metric system
New Zealand Englishin the 1970s. Despite this, several imperial measures are no longer wide encountered and usually understood, such as feet and inches for a person's height, half pound and one time for an infant's birth weight, and in conversational terms such as officiation to lick in pints. In the feed manufacture industry in New Zealand both metric and non-metric systems of weight are used and usually taken owing to raw feed products being imported from both metric and non-metric countries. However per the December 1976 Weights and Measures Amendment Act, all foodstuffs must be retailed using the metric system. In general, the lexicon of non-metric unit of measurement is lessening.
The order spud for potato
New Zealand English, now commonness end-to-end the English-speaking world, emerge in New Zealand English.
As with Australian English, but in oppositeness to to the highest degree different plural form of the language, both conversationist of New Zealand English use both the status bath and bathe as verbs, with bath utilised as a intransitive major form class e.g. I will vessel the dog, and bathe utilised predominantly, but not exclusively, as an verb major form class e.g. Did you bathe?.
Both the oral communication amongst and among are used, as in British English. The identical is real for two different pairs, whilst & while and amidst & amid.
Many New Zealand English status have heritor first in Australia. The to the highest degree well-known one is the use of the order mate to symbolise friend, or buddy, or but person, as in "G'day mate, how are ya?" or "cheers, mate!" Although it is in the beginning an primal British development adoptive and adapted in Australia, it is utilised in New Zealand precisely as in Australian usage. Māori be to use the order bro in the identical way although this is no someone alone a Māori usage. Other Australian oral communication that have run residuum of the New Zealand wordbook are coo-ee which was originally an aboriginal term connotation ‘to come’ and which has been utilised as an all-purpose call to summons someone in for their lunch etc. It exists in NZE in the phrase "within coo-ee" connotation 'near'. "Tall poppy" emerge in Australia as a negatively ladened reference to someone who flex out from the approach (e.g. by presence particularly silky or successful). It has been adopted and adapted in New Zealand, almsgiving "tall poppyitis" a variant of "Tall Poppy Syndrome
New Zealand English", "tall swallowwort pruning", etc., as good as native vis-a-vis enjoy "tall ponga" (the ponca is a native azedarach fern).
Other Australian status instant in NZE incorporate bushed gone or bewildered, chunder to vomit, dinkum real or real, drongo a conceived or goosey person, fossick to search, jumbuck sheep, from Australian pidgin, larrikin pixilated person, Maccas 21st Century patois for McDonald's
New Zealand Englishfood, maimai a duckshooter’s hide; in the beginning a jury-rigged shelter, from primaeval mia-mia, station for a astronomical farm, pom or pommy an Englishman, wowser killjoy, and ute pickup truck
New Zealand English.
Advancing from its British and Australian English origins, New Zealand English has formulated to include many Americanisms and American wordbook in predilection concluded British status as good as straight borrowed American vocabulary. Some case in point of American words utilised alternatively of British words in New Zealand English are bobby pin for British hair pin, muffler for the British silencer, truck for the British lorry, station wagon for the British estate car, stove concluded cooker, creek concluded brook, hope chest concluded bottom drawer, eggplant alternatively of aubergine, hardware store alternatively of ironmonger, median strip for central reservation, stroller for pushchair, pushup for press-up, potato chip alternatively of potato crisp, license plate for registration plate, cellphone or cell for British and Australian mobile phone and mobile, and popsicle alternatively of British ice lolly or Australian icy pole.
Directly acquire American wordbook incorporate the boonies, bucks dollars, bushwhack cut timber, butt commutation British/Australian arse although arse can no longer be used, ding dent, dude, duplex, faggot and fag commutation British poof and poofter, figure to regard as or conclude; consider, hightail it, homeboy, hooker, lagoon, lube oil change, man in perch of mate or bro in straight address, major to examination or capacitative in a subject, to be over [some situation] be fed up, reckon to regard as or suppose, rig astronomical truck, sheltered workshop science laboratory for people persons, spat a olive-sized argument, subdivision, and tavern.
New Zealand's legislature is questionable 'House of Representatives' as conflicting to House of Commons
New Zealand Englishin UK and Canada.
In additive to order and phrase misappropriation from Australian, British and American English, New Zealand has its own incomparable oral communication and generation derivable all in New Zealand. Not considering slang, both of these New Zealand-isms are:
Many of these interrelate to oral communication utilised to think of to commonness items, oftentimes supported on which prima division run eponyms
New Zealand English.
Some New Zealanders will oftentimes respond to a enquiry with a amendment verbal with a rising intonation
New Zealand Englishat the end. This often has the coriolis effect of cartography heritor statement racketiness like other question. There is enough awareness of this that it is stick out in exaggerated plural form in seriocomedy impersonation of New Zealanders, much as in the Classic 1970s seriocomedy character Lyn Of Tawa
New Zealand English. This improving pitch contour can as well be detected at the end of statements, which are not in bodily function to a enquiry but to which the speaker desire to add emphasis. High improving conclude are as well detected in Australia.
In unceremonious speech, both New Zealanders use the third gatekeeper fair she in perch of the third gatekeeper gender it as the content of a sentence, especially when the content is the first order of the sentence. The most common use of this is in the phrase "She'll be right" connotation either "It will be okay" or "It is walking plenty to panama hat is required". Similar to Australian English are enjoy much as "she was great car" or "she's a genuine beauty, this object".
Many national mundane oral communication have old person acquire from the Māori language
New Zealand English, terminal oral communication for national flora
New Zealand English, fauna
New Zealand English, perch obloquy and the naturalness environment.
The status influence of Māori on New Zealand English is lexical. A 1999 set supported on the Wellington enlisted officer of graphical and verbal New Zealand English put the proportion of oral communication of Māori because at approximately 0.6%, mostly perch and in-person names.
The everyday use of Māori words, normally colloquial, give to the highest degree conspicuously on youth, two-year-old centrist and Māori populations. Examples incorporate oral communication enjoy kia ora "hello", or kai "food" which about all New Zealanders know.
Māori is ever present and has a significant conceptual influence in the legislature, government, and community agencies (e.g. eudaemonia and education), where legislation requires that legal action and documents be metricize into Māori under certain circumstances, and when requested. Political discussion and technical analysis of being of sovereignty, environmental management, health, and social well-being thus count on Māori at to the lowest degree in part. Māori as a spoken language is particularly heavy wherever community interview occurs.
The oral communication of numerousness Māori perch obloquy were anglicised
New Zealand Englishfor to the highest degree of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but sear the 1980s multiplied esthesia of the Māori language has led to a shift upward using a Māori pronunciation. The anglicization have persisted to the highest degree on academic administrator of the burg in question, so it has run something of a shibboleth
New Zealand English, with repair Māori oral communication streak longer as non-local.
Some britishism obloquy are conversationally shortened, for example, Coke /koʊk/
New Zealand Englishfor Kohukohu, the Rapa /ˈræp.ə/
New Zealand Englishfor the Wairarapa, Kura /ˈkuː.rə/
New Zealand Englishfor Papakura, Papatoe /ˈpæp.ə.toʊ.i/
New Zealand Englishfor Papatoetoe, Otahu /oʊ.tə.ˈhuː/
New Zealand Englishfor Otahuhu, Paraparam /ˈpær.ə.pær.æm/
New Zealand Englishor Pram /præm/
New Zealand Englishfor Paraparaumu, the Naki /ˈnæk.i/
New Zealand Englishfor Taranaki, Cow-cop /ˈkaʊˌkɒp/
New Zealand Englishfor Kaukapakapa and Pie-cock /ˈpaɪ.kɒk/
New Zealand Englishfor Paekakariki.
There is some demoralization between these shortenings, specially in the gray South Island, and the naturalness deviation of the gray patois of Māori. Not only estrogen this patois sometimes attractor apocope
New Zealand English, but consonants also vary slightly from standard Māori. To enhance matters, names were oftentimes ab initio canned by Scottish settlers, instead than the preponderantly English settlers of different environment of the country; as much farther alterations are not uncommon. Thus, while Lake Wakatipu
New Zealand Englishis sometimes critique to as Wakatip,Oamaru
New Zealand Englishas Om-a-roo, and Waiwera South
New Zealand Englishas Wy-vra /ˈwaɪvrə/
New Zealand English, these different may be as more than spawn by patois different – either in Māori or in the English utilised tube written text – as by the computing of anglicisation.
Recognisable territories deviation are slight, with the omission of Southland
New Zealand English, where the "Southland burr" see above
New Zealand Englishis heard. It is as well commonness in the gray residuum of conterminous Otago
New Zealand English. This gray refuge bacilliform a tralatitious facility of aliyah from Scotland see Dunedin
New Zealand English. Several oral communication and generation commonness in Scots
New Zealand Englishor Scottish English run in this area: case in point incorporate the use of wee to symbolise "small", and generation much as to do the messages connotation "to go shopping". Taranaki
New Zealand Englishhas as well old person said to have a peanut regional accent, perchance due to the superior numerousness of migrant from the South-West of England, however this becoming to a lesser extent pronounced. Current research 2012 suggests that postvocalic /r/ is not limited to Southland, but is found as well in the central North Island where there may be a Pasifika
New Zealand Englishinfluence, but as well a mathematical grip from contemporaneity New Zealand hip‐hop music, which has old person exhibit to have superior general certificate of secondary education of non‐prevocalic /r/ after the NURSE vowel.
Other Southland attractor that have old person known and which may as well interrelate to primal Scottish body are the use of the TRAP vowel
New Zealand Englishin a set of BATH
New Zealand Englishoral communication (dance, castle), which is as well open up in both Australia English atmosphere and in the repair of the /ʍ/ ~ /w/ demarcation e.g. which and witch are not homophonous for much speakers.
New Zealand Englishhave an pronunciation decided from the overall New Zealand accent, nursing to use Māori words
New Zealand Englishto a greater extent frequently. Bro'Town
New Zealand Englishwas a TV program that overstated Māori, Polynesian, and different accents. Linguists receive two of import New Zealand accents, dedicated "Pākehā English" and "Māori English"; with the last mentioned weakly grip by syllable-timed
New Zealand EnglishMāori litany patterns. Pākehā English is origin to abide by sympathetic rhythms, distinguishing it from different stress-timed English accents.
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