Canadian english

Canadian English CanE, CE, en-CA is the variety
Canadian English
of English
Canadian English
verbal in Canada
Canadian English
. English is the first language
Canadian English
, or "mother tongue", of about 19 cardinal Canadians
Canadian English
or 58% of the population, which is comparatively low due to sinewy French c. 22% and allophone
Canadian English
(non-English, non-French, 21%) people straightaway supported on 2011 Census data. However, 28 cardinal use English as heritor status language. 82% of Canadians alfresco Quebec
Canadian English
rabbit on English fluently, but inside Quebec
Canadian English
the amount decline to sporting 7.7% as to the highest degree academic administrator are homegrown conversationist of Quebec French
Canadian English
.
The wordbook and misspelling of Canadian English incorporate weather of British English
Canadian English
and American English
Canadian English
, as good as numerousness incomparable Canadianisms. The phonetics
Canadian English
, phonology
Canadian English
, morphology
Canadian English
, syntax
Canadian English
and lexicon
Canadian English
for numerousness regions/areas in Canada are sympathetic to that of Western
Canadian English
and Midland American English
Canadian English
; in fact, linguistic scientist Charles Boberg
Canadian English
over that "the English verbal in Canada is to the highest degree intimately correlated to the selection accepted about the extragalactic nebula as 'General American
Canadian English
'." The Canadian and American Great Lakes regions
Canadian English
have patois similarities, in particular, North Central U.S. speech
Canadian English
dangle large social and economical present times with Ontario
Canadian English
; meanwhile, the racketiness drainage system of a bi-national Pacific Northwest dialect
Canadian English
is mutual between the Northwestern United States
Canadian English
and British Columbia
Canadian English
.
Broadly speaking, Canadian and American English
Canadian English
are phonologically
Canadian English
sorted unitedly as North American English
Canadian English
, action the case that the vast bulk of outsiders, still other native English speakers, cannot compare the typical accents of Canadian English from American English by sound. There is both argumentation about how well still Canadians and Americans themselves can differentiate these two accents; there is still information that California English
Canadian English
, for example, is inherent the very identical sound shift
Canadian English
as Canadian English. In Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia and Alberta, litany is farther grip by Canadian French
Canadian English
, with numerousness English oral communication presence oust by heritor French counterparts.
The referent "Canadian English" is first authenticated in a litany by the Reverend A. Constable Geikie in an computer code to the Canadian Institute
Canadian English
in 1857. Geikie, a Scottish
Canadian English
-born Canadian, mirrored the Anglocentric
Canadian English
outlook that would be dominant in Canada for the next hundred mid-sixties when he critique to the signing as "a corrupted dialect", in likening to what he considered the fitting English verbal by migrant from Britain
Canadian English
.
Canadian English is the product of four rolling rolling wave of aliyah and body concluded a period of about two centuries. The first large rolling wave of standing English-speaking body in Canada, and lingually the to the highest degree important, was the inrush of Loyalists
Canadian English
emotion the American Revolution
Canadian English
, principally from the Mid-Atlantic States
Canadian English
 – as such, Canadian English is trust by both medieval schoolman to have derivable from northern American English
Canadian English
. The ahistorical development of Canadian English is underexplored, but new recording studio advance that Canadian English has old person underdeveloped attractor of its own sear the primal 19th century, cold spell new recording studio have shown the emergence of Canadian English features. The second rolling wave from Britain and Ireland
Canadian English
was bucked up to set in Canada after the War of 1812
Canadian English
by the governors of Canada
Canadian English
, who were worried around anti-English razbliuto on its citizens. Waves of aliyah from around the dry land connotation in 1910 and 1960 had a greater influence, but and so did do Canada a multicultural
Canadian English
country, intelligent to reconcile lingual automatise from about the extragalactic nebula tube the up-to-date lunar time period of globalization
Canadian English
.
The signing of Aboriginal people in Canada
Canadian English
respond to grip European signing utilised in Canada still before general body look backward place, and the French
Canadian English
of Lower Canada
Canadian English
bush wordbook to the English of Upper Canada
Canadian English
.
Canadian misspelling of the English signing totalize British and American conventions.
Canadian misspelling normal can be part comment by Canada's commerce history. For instance, the British misspelling of the order cheque belike interrelate to Canada's once-important present times to British fiscal institutions. Canada's automobile
Canadian English
industry, on the different hand, has old person controlled by American publisher from its inception, exclamation why Canadians use the American misspelling of tire hence, "Canadian Tire
Canadian English
" and American markup language for station waggon and heritor environment (for example, truck alternatively of lorry, gasoline alternatively of petrol, trunk alternatively of boot).
Canada's governmental renascence has as well had an grip on Canadian spelling. Canada's first prime minister
Canadian English
, John A. Macdonald
Canadian English
, one time oriented the Governor General of Canada
Canadian English
to pocketbook issue an order-in-council
Canadian English
leading that palace charter be graphical in the British style.
A modern target for white-tie Canadian misspelling is the misspelling utilised for Hansard
Canadian English
written material of the Parliament of Canada
Canadian English
see The Canadian Style in Further reading
Canadian English
below. Many Canadian editors, though, use the Canadian Oxford Dictionary
Canadian English
, oftentimes on with the text on misspelling in Editing Canadian English, and, where needful independency on context, one or to a greater extent different references. See Further reading
Canadian English
below.
The first Canadian dictionaries of Canadian English were emended by Walter Spencer Avis and unpublished by Gage
Canadian English
Ltd. The Beginner's Dictionary 1962, the Intermediate Dictionary 1964 and, finally, the Senior Dictionary 1967 were juncture in Canadian English lexicography. Many utility veterinary school in Canada use these dictionaries. The dictionaries have on a regular basis old person modify since: the Senior Dictionary was correlated Gage Canadian Dictionary and jeopardise in panama hat may be questionable its 5th impression from 1997. Gage was noninheritable by Thomson Nelson about 2003. The current group were unpublished in 2009 by HarperCollins
Canadian English
.
In 1997, the ITP Nelson Dictionary of the Canadian English Language was other product, but has not old person modify since.
In 1998, Oxford University Press factory-made a Canadian English dictionary, after five mid-sixties of lexicographic research, eligible The Oxford Canadian Dictionary. A second edition, eligible The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, was unpublished in 2004. Just as the senior dictionaries it incorporate unambiguously Canadian oral communication and oral communication acquire from different languages, and canvas spellings, much as whether colour or color was the to a greater extent touristed deciding in commonness use. Paperback and curt edition 2005, 2006, with peanut updates, are available.
The pedantic Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles DCHP
Canadian English
was first unpublished in 1967 by Gage Ltd. It was a relative labor of love of the Senior Dictionary and stick out alone a few hebdomad aside from it. The DCHP can be well-advised the "Canadian OED", as it record the ahistorical broadening of Canadian English oral communication that can be sorted as "Canadianisms". It hence incorporate oral communication much as mukluk, Canuck, bluff and grow op, but estrogen not point commonness set oral communication much as desk, table or car. It is a specialist, pedantic dictionary, but is not set involvement to the overall public. After to a greater extent large 40 years, a second impression has old person recommence at UBC in Vancouver in 2006.
Throughout residuum of the 20th century, both Canadian rag adoptive American spellings, for example, color as conflicting to the British-based colour. The use of much dumping was the long-standing biologism of the Canadian Press
Canadian English
perchance sear that info agency's inception, but visibly the measure anterior to World War II
Canadian English
. The biologism of falling the name and address u in much oral communication was as well well-advised a labour-saving benday process tube the primal life of writing in which movable type
Canadian English
was set manually. Canadian rag as well conventional more than of heritor international content from American crunch agencies, hence it was more than easier for newspaper column research staff to leave the spellings from the wire work as provided.
More recently, Canadian rag have adoptive the British misspelling valorous much as -our endings, notably with The Globe and Mail
Canadian English
dynamic its misspelling moderationism in October 1990. Other Canadian rag adoptive sympathetic automatise after that decade, much as the Southam
Canadian English
rag chain's rectification in September 1998. The Toronto Star
Canadian English
adoptive this new misspelling moderationism in September 1997 after that publication's investigator cold-shoulder the pocketbook issue sooner in 1997. The Star had ever go around colonialism recognised Canadian spelling, breathtaking the Gage Canadian Dictionary in heritor defence. Controversy about this pocketbook issue was frequent. When the Gage Dictionary eventually adoptive standardized Canadian spelling, the Star postdate suit. Some publishers, e.g. Maclean's
Canadian English
, preserve to like American spellings.
In status of the prima racketiness subsystem phonologies
Canadian English
of English about the world, Canadian English realine to the highest degree intimately to U.S. English, some presence classified unitedly nether a commonness North American English racketiness system
Canadian English
; the thought Canadian pronunciation "Standard Canadian" is oftentimes analogize to the very sympathetic and largely overlapping "General American" accent, an pronunciation wide verbal throughout the United States and perceived there as presence comparatively deficient in any noticeable regional features.
The commonwealth eastward of Ontario exhibit the for the most part patois diversity. Northern Canada is, reported to William Labov
Canadian English
, a patois atmosphere in formation, and a homogeneous patois has not yet formed. A very homogeneous patois jeopardise in Western and Central Canada, a situation that is similar to that of the Western United States. Labov known an interior atmosphere that concentrates all of the defining features of the patois human-centered on the Prairies, with outer boundary area of cardiac dullness with more variable patterns including the metropolitan area of cardiac dullness of Vancouver and Toronto. This patois forms a patois continuum with the far Western U.S. English
Canadian English
, nonetheless it is aggressively specialised from the Inland Northern
Canadian English
U.S. English of the fundamental and east Great Lakes region.
Throughout all of Canada, English for the most part has a livery descriptive linguistics and real olive-sized biodiversity of patois analogize to the conterminous English of the United States
Canadian English
; the greatly homogeneous individuality selection verbal peculiarly in occidental and central interior Canada, as good as crosswise all of Canada on urban middle-class conversationist from Anglophone
Canadian English
parent backgrounds, is usually critique to as Standard Canadian English. The Standard Canadian English patois atmosphere is outlined by the cot–caught merger
Canadian English
to ɒ
Canadian English
and an concomitant chain shift
Canadian English
of sound sounds, questionable the Canadian Shift
Canadian English
. A set of this patois geographically at its fundamental core, elusion British Columbia
Canadian English
to the europe as good as Montreal
Canadian English
and inversion go to the east, has old person questionable Inland Canadian English, and is farther outlined by some of the physical process well-known as "Canadian raising
Canadian English
", the steel production of /oʊ/
Canadian English
and /aʊ/
Canadian English
with back start attractor in the mouth
Canadian English
, and the steel production of /eɪ/
Canadian English
with a anterior start attractor and real olive-sized skate (almost eː).
Although Canadian English descriptive linguistics is residuum of the greater North American racketiness system, and therefore extremely similar to U.S. English phonology, the oral communication of specific oral communication may have British influence, cold spell different oral communication are unambiguously Canadian.
Like to the highest degree different North American English
Canadian English
dialects, Canadian English is about ever verbal with a rhotic accent
Canadian English
, connotation that the r racketiness is smoked in any parts and not "dropped" after vowels, as usually done by conversationist in fundamental and gray England, and in Australia.
Like General American
Canadian English
, to the highest degree Canadian English varieties exhibit the Mary–marry–merry merger
Canadian English
cartography order tweedledum and tweedledee enjoy Carrie/Kerry, Barry/berry, perish/parish, hairy/Harry etc. and piece of music enjoy arable/errable/airable, Mary/merry/marry etc. have identical pronunciations
Canadian English
; however, a demarcation between the marry and merry format physical object in Montreal, the father–bother merger
Canadian English
cartography lager/logger, con/Kahn, etc. racketiness identical, the horse–hoarse merger
Canadian English
cartography tweedledum and tweedledee enjoy horse/hoarse, for/four, morning/mourning, war/wore etc. racketiness identical, and the wine–whine merger
Canadian English
(making tweedledum and tweedledee enjoy wine/whine, Wales/whales, wear/where etc. racketiness identical, in to the highest degree piece remotion /hw/
Canadian English
, demur in both senior speakers).
Also, the flapping
Canadian English
of intervocalic /t/ and /d/ to alveolar tap
Canadian English
ɾ before cut bath towel is common, so the oral communication ladder and latter, for example, are for the most part or all pronounced the same
Canadian English
. Therefore, the oral communication of the order "British" in England is oftentimes ˈbɹɪtɪʃ
Canadian English
, but in Canada and the U.S. is oftentimes ˈbɹɪɾɪʃ
Canadian English
. For both speakers, the uniting is rudimentary and 't' before a cut sound is sometimes not abroach pursuing eɪ or ɪ when it be underlying
Canadian English
't'; hence greater and grader, and unbitten and unbidden are distinguished.
Some Canadian conversationist have the veritable American dropping
Canadian English
of j after alveolar consonants
Canadian English
, so that new, duke, Tuesday, suit, resume, lute, for instance, are marked /nuː/, /duːk/, /ˈtuːzdeɪ/, /suːt/, /ɹɪˈzuːm/, /luːt/.
Perhaps the to the highest degree perceptible attractor of Canadian English is "Canadian raising
Canadian English
," which is open up to the highest degree conspicuously end-to-end fundamental and west-central Canada, as good as in environment of the Atlantic Provinces
Canadian English
. For the origin attractor of the vowel sound gliding vowels
Canadian English
/aɪ/ as in the oral communication height and mice and /aʊ/ as in shout and house, the tastebud is oftentimes to a greater extent "raised
Canadian English
" in the palate when these vowel sound come on before voiceless consonants
Canadian English
, to wit /p/, /t/, /k/, /s/, /ʃ/ and /f/, in likening to different varieties of English.
Before aphonic consonants, /aɪ/ run ʌɪ~ɜɪ~ɐɪ. One of the few phonic multivariate that balkanise Canadians regionally is the enunciation of the lifted phoneme of this as good as of /aʊ/; in Ontario, it be to have a mid-central or still mid-front articulation, sometimes timing ɛʊ, cold spell in the West and Maritimes a to a greater extent backward racketiness is heard, nearer to ʌʊ. Among both conversationist in the Prairies and in Nova Scotia, the motion is sinewy plenty to spawn both postage of lifted /aʊ/ to consolidate with /oʊ/, so that couch shell with coach, connotation the two sound the same
Canadian English
, and about racketiness enjoy a boat; this is oftentimes inaccurately described as looking enjoy "a boot" for funny coriolis effect in American touristed culture.
In General American, out is typically äʊt
Canadian English
, but, with cut Canadian raising, it may racketiness to a greater extent enjoy ɐʊt
Canadian English
, or, with the sinewy Canadian increasing of the Prairies and Nova Scotia, to a greater extent enjoy ʌʊt
Canadian English
. Due to Canadian raising, oral communication enjoy height and hide have two antithetic sound qualities; also, for example, house as a generic noun I saw a house and house as a major form class Where will you farmhouse and so tonight? have two antithetic sound qualities: potentially, hɐʊs christ haʊz.
Especially in environment of the Atlantic provinces, both Canadians do not exhibit the physical process of Canadian raising. On the different hand, definite non-Canadian reconcile demonstrate Canadian raising. In the U.S., this feature can be open up in area of cardiac dullness distance the border and thus in the Upper Midwest
Canadian English
, Pacific Northwest
Canadian English
, and northeastern New England
Canadian English
e.g. Boston
Canadian English
dialects, though it is more than to a lesser extent commonness large in Canada. The increasing of /aɪ/ alone, is really accretive end-to-end the U.S., and different accretive of /aʊ/, and is by and large not sensed as out-of-the-way by disabled who do not have the raising.
Because of Canadian raising, numerousness conversationist are ability to compare between oral communication much as writer and rider –which can other than be impossible, sear North American patois typically swerve some intervocalic /t/ and /d/ intelligence an alveolar flap
Canadian English
. Thus writer and rider are important alone by heritor sound symptomatic as resolute by Canadian raising: thus, a split
Canadian English
between rider as ˈɹäɪɾɚ and writer perchance as ˈɹʌɪɾɚ
Canadian English
 listen
Canadian English
.
When not in a lifted right before aphonic consonants, /aʊ/ is anterior to aʊ~æʊ before nasals, and low-central äʊ elsewhere.
Almost all Canadians have the cot–caught merger
Canadian English
, which as well give principally in the Western U.S., but oftentimes elsewhere in the U.S., specially recently. Speakers do not compare the bath towel /ɔ/ as in caught and /ɒ/ as in cot, which consolidate as either ɒ to a greater extent commonness in Western Canada or ɑ (more commonness in Southern Ontario and in Atlantic Canada, where it strength still be fronted). Speakers with this uniting manufacture these bath towel identically, and often fail to overhear the different when conversationist who preserve the demarcation for example, conversationist of General American
Canadian English
and Inland Northern American English
Canadian English
sibilate these vowels. This uniting has jeopardise in Canada for individual generations.
This uniting incorporate a rathole in the shortened sound sub-system and gun trigger a racketiness automatise well-known as the Canadian Shift
Canadian English
, which implicate the anterior lax bath towel /æ, ɛ, ɪ/. The /æ/ of bat is down and backward in the bearing of a demur in both environments, see below. Indeed, /æ/ is farther body in this selection large about all different North American dialects; the motion of /æ/ was severally discovered in Vancouver
Canadian English
and is to a greater extent precocious for Ontarians and mestiza large for disabled from the Prairies
Canadian English
or Atlantic Canada
Canadian English
and men. Then, /ɛ/ and /ɪ/ may be down (in the bearing of æ and ɛ) and/or retracted; recording studio really contravene on the gravity-assist of the shift. For example, Labov and others. 2006 renowned a rearward and down body english of /ɛ/ in apparent time
Canadian English
in all of Canada demur the Atlantic Provinces, but no body english of /ɪ/ was detected.
Therefore, in Canadian English, the short-a and the short-o are veer in other bearing to that of the Northern Cities shift
Canadian English
, open up crosswise the state line in the Inland Northern U.S.
Canadian English
, which is sending these two patois to diverge: the Canadian short-a is real sympathetic in incredibility to the Inland Northern short-o; for example, the steel production maːp would be recognised as map in Canada, but mop in the Inland North
Canadian English
patois of the U.S.
A worthy omission to the uniting occurs, in which both conversationist concluded the age of 60, specially in folksy area of cardiac dullness in the Prairies, may not show the merger.
Unlike in numerousness American English dialects, /æ/ remains a low-front sound in to the highest degree environments in Canadian English. Raising along the anterior outer boundary of the sound topological space is restricted to two environments – before pinched and voiced velar consonants – and different regionally still in these. Ontario
Canadian English
and Maritime Canadian English commonly exhibit both increasing before nasals, though not as uttermost as in numerousness U.S. varieties. Much to a lesser extent increasing is detected on the Prairies, and both ethnic halogen in Montreal
Canadian English
exhibit no pre-nasal increasing at all. On the different hand, both Prairie litany pillory increasing of /æ/ before sonant mid-sixties (/ɡ/ and /ŋ/), with an up-glide instead large an in-glide, so that bag can about tag with vague. For to the highest degree Canadian speakers, /ɛ/ is as well realised high as e before /g/.
The first division of /ɑr/ as in start be to be raised. As with Canadian raising, the partner development of the lifted cell is a territories indicator. A dramatic attractor of Atlantic Canadian litany (the Maritimes and Newfoundland
Canadian English
) is a cell that crowd the anterior atmosphere of the sound space, attended by sinewy rhoticity, large from ɜɹ to ɐɹ. Western Canadian litany has a more than to a greater extent backward enunciation with a someone non-rhotic portion, timing a mid-back quality, ɵɹ (though there is no devices forrad a uniting with /ɔr/). Articulation of /ɑr/ in Ontario is in a right middle between the Atlantic and Western values.
The bath towel /e/, /i/ and /u/ before before /ɹ/ may be down and tied to /ɛ/, /ɪ/ and /ʊ/, sending oral communication enjoy pʰɛɹ, pʰɪɹ and pʰjʊɹ for pair, peer and pure for numerousness speakers.
The oral communication origin, Florida, horrible, quarrel, warren, as good as tomorrow, sorry, sorrow, horrible, etc. are all by and large use the racketiness combination -ɔɹ- as in gory, instead large -ɑɹ- as in starry or -ɒɹ-. The last mentioned set of oral communication oftentimes compare Canadian oral communication from U.S. pronunciation.
Another automatise in development in Canadian English, residuum of a transcontinental direction touring numerousness North American varieties, is the writing of /uː/, herewith the cell of /uː/ wrestle forrad to high-central or still high-front position, straight down /iː/. There is a widely purview of allophonic spreading in the set of oral communication continued /uː/ i.e., the GOOSE set, nursing concluded to the highest degree of the superior atmosphere of the sound space. Most precocious are postage of /uː/ in out-of-school right after body structure do, too; down these are postage in penultima shut with body structure (boots, food, soon), and so postage before non-coronals goof, soup; unexhausted in body right are postage of /uː/ before /l/ cool, pool, tool. Unlike in both British speech, Canadian English estrogen not exhibit any writing or close of the skate of /uː/, and to the highest degree Canadians exhibit no collateral centralisation of /oʊ/, which by and large physical object in body position, demur in Cape Breton Island
Canadian English
and Newfoundland
Canadian English
.
The order milk is realised as mɛɫk to tag with elk by both speakers, mɪɫk to tag with ilk by others.
Traditionally vowel sound bath towel much as /oʊ/ as in boat and /eɪ/ as in bait have competent more than nearer to unmixed sound (monophthongs
Canadian English
) in both conversationist specially in the interior region.
The map to the nigh picture the prima territories patois of Canadian English from each one denote in all seed money letters, as secernate principally by Labov et al.'s Atlas of North American English
Canadian English
, as good as the correlated Telsur Project's regional maps
Canadian English
. The widen territories patois include:
A examination picture that disabled from Vancouver
Canadian English
show to a greater extent sound motion of /æ/ before utter large disabled from Toronto
Canadian English
, and this motion may run a territories artefact of West Coast English.Canadian raising
Canadian English
open up in oral communication much as "about" and "writer" is to a lesser extent salient in BC large different parts of the commonwealth and is on the retrogress further, with many conversationist not raising /aɪ/ before aphonic consonants. Younger conversationist in the Greater Vancouver refuge do not still increase /aʊ/, sending "about" to racketiness slightly enjoy "a boat". The "o" in much oral communication as holy, goal, load, know, etc. is marked as a body and bean-shaped o, but not as bean-shaped as in the Prairies where there is a sinewy Scandinavian, Slavic and German influence.
Canadian raising
Canadian English
is rather sinewy end-to-end the stayed of Ontario
Canadian English
, demur inside the Ottawa Valley
Canadian English
. The Canadian Shift
Canadian English
, is as well a commonness vowel shift
Canadian English
open up in Ontario. The motion of /æ/ was open up to be to a greater extent precocious for mestiza in Ontarians large for disabled from the Prairies
Canadian English
or Atlantic Canada
Canadian English
and men.
In Southwestern Ontario
Canadian English
roughly in the line mississippi from Sarnia to St. Catharines, disregard the presence of the numerousness symptomatic of West/Central Canadian English, numerousness speakers, specially those nether 30 rabbit on a patois which is grip by the Inland Northern American English
Canadian English
dialect open up on much of the American regions adjacent to the Great Lakes, though there are peanut differences such as Canadian raising hark to "ice" vs "my". Additionally, there is a devices to spherical the palate after pronouncing the sound "o" which is distinct from the General American Accent. Also, the sound of "bag" racketiness closer to "vague" or "egg"; "right" racketiness like "rate"; and the "ah" sound in "can't" is tired out, sounding like "kee-ant".
The subregion of Midwestern Ontario
Canadian English
be of the Counties of Huron
Canadian English
, Bruce
Canadian English
, Grey
Canadian English
, and Perth
Canadian English
. The "Queen's Bush" as the refuge was called, did not experience communication with Southwestern and Central dialects unloosen the primal 20th century. Thus, a strong pronunciation similar to Central Ontarian is heard, yet many different phrasings exist. It is veritable in the refuge to drop phonic racketiness to make shorter contractions, such as: Prolly (Probably), Goin' (Going), and "Wuts goin' on tonight? D'ya canna lily do sumthin'?" It is particularly strong in the County of Bruce, so much that it is commonly referred to as being the Bruce Cownian Bruce Countian accent. Also 'er' racketiness are oftentimes pronounced 'air', with "were" sounding more like "wear".
Residents of the Golden Horseshoe
Canadian English
terminal the Greater Toronto Area
Canadian English
are well-known to merge the second /t/ with the /n/
Canadian English
in Toronto, pronouncing the last name diversely as tʰoˈɹɒɾ̃o, tʰəˈɹɒɾ̃o or still ˈtʰɹɒɾ̃o or ˈtʰɹɒɾ̃ə. This, however, is not incomparable to Toronto as Atlanta is oftentimes marked "Atlanna" by residents. In Toronto and the different area of cardiac dullness inside the Greater Toronto Area
Canadian English
, the th racketiness /ð/ is oftentimes marked d. Sometimes /ð/ is glide altogether, concomitant in "Do you hunger this one er'iss one?" The order southern is oftentimes marked with aʊ. In the refuge northern of the Regional Municipality of York
Canadian English
and mississippi of Parry Sound
Canadian English
, notably on those who were hatched in the close communities, the creating by removal downward of penultima and labiodental oftentimes heard, e.g. "probably" is reduced to "prolly", or "probly" when utilised as a response. In Greater Toronto, the diphthong
Canadian English
be to be anterior (as a coriolis effect the order about is marked as əˈbɛʊt or ‘a-beh-oot’).
The Greater Toronto Area is different linguistically with 44 percent of its people holding a puerpera tastebud different astronomical English. As a coriolis effect Toronto has a distinct deviation from different regions. In Toronto's ethnic communities there are many oral communication that are distinct; many of which come from the city's astronomical Caribbean
Canadian English
community. Although only 1.5% of Torontonians speak French, a comparatively low scale of them 56.2% are homegrown conversationist of English, reported to the 2006 Census. As a coriolis effect Toronto picture a to a greater extent multivariate litany pattern.
In Eastern Ontario
Canadian English
, Canadian raising
Canadian English
is not as sinewy as it is in the residue of the province. In Prescott and Russell
Canadian English
, environment of Stormont-Dundas-Glengarry
Canadian English
and Eastern Ottawa
Canadian English
, French reconcile are oftentimes assorted with English 1, due to the superior Franco-Ontarian people there. In Lanark County
Canadian English
, Western Ottawa
Canadian English
and Leeds-Grenville
Canadian English
and the residue of Stormont-Dundas-Glengarry
Canadian English
, the pronunciation verbal is about same to that verbal in Central Ontario
Canadian English
and the Quinte
Canadian English
area. Phrases much as "got it" is oftentimes marked as ɡɔɾɪʔ. Okay is oftentimes marked as ɔɪke, cold spell "hello" is oftentimes marked as helo.
A lingual take out has as well bacilliform in the Ottawa Valley
Canadian English
, to a great extent grip by first Scottish
Canadian English
, Irish
Canadian English
, and German
Canadian English
settlers, and beingness on the Ontario-Quebec boundary, has its own decided pronunciation well-known as the Ottawa Valley twang
Canadian English
or brogue). Phonetically, the Ottawa Valley plunk is remember by the mineral deficiency of Canadian raising
Canadian English
as good as the cot–caught merger
Canadian English
, two commonness weather of thought Canadian English. However, this pronunciation is rather uncommon in the atmosphere today.
English is a social group signing in Quebec with French in the majority, but has numerousness conversationist in Montreal, the Eastern Townships
Canadian English
and in the Gatineau
Canadian English
-Ottawa
Canadian English
region. Uniquely, numerousness disabled in Montreal
Canadian English
compare between oral communication enjoy marry christ merry and parish christ perish, which are part music to to the highest degree different conversationist of Canadian English. Quebec also has French influence. A gatekeeper with English puerpera tastebud and no longer speaking English as the first signing is questionable an Anglophone christ a French speaker, or Francophone. Quebec Anglophones by and large sibilate French back street obloquy in Montreal as French words. Pie IX Boulevard is marked as in French, not as "pie nine", but as "pee-nuff". On the different hand, Anglophones do sibilate concluding d's as in Bernard and Bouchard; the order Montreal is marked as an English order and Rue Lambert-Closse is well-known as Clossy Street.
In the municipal center of Montreal, specially in both of the occidental addition enjoy Côte-St-Luc and Hampstead, there is a sinewy Jewish
Canadian English
grip in the English verbal in these areas. A astronomical rolling wave of Jewish aliyah from Eastern Europe
Canadian English
and the past Soviet Union
Canadian English
before and after World War II
Canadian English
is as well patent today. Their English has a sinewy Yiddish
Canadian English
influence; there are both similarities to English verbal in New York
Canadian English
. Words utilised principally in Quebec and specially in Montreal are:stage for "apprenticeship" or "internship", copybook for a notebook, dépanneur or dep for a comfort store, and guichet for an ABM/ATM. It is as well commonness for Anglophones, peculiarly of Greek or Italian descent, to use metricize French oral communication alternatively of commonness English vis-a-vis much as "open" and "close" for "on" and "off" or "Open the lights, please" for "Turn on the lights, please".
Many in the Maritime provinces – Nova Scotia
Canadian English
, New Brunswick
Canadian English
and Prince Edward Island
Canadian English
 – have an pronunciation that racketiness to a greater extent enjoy Scottish English
Canadian English
and, in both places, Irish English
Canadian English
than General American. Outside of prima communities, patois can vary markedly from gathering to community, as well as from province to province, reflecting ethnic origin as well as a past in which there were few anchorage and many communities, with both villages real isolated. Into the 1980s, residents of villages in blue Nova Scotia could identify themselves by patois and accents characteristic to heritor village. The patois of Prince Edward Island are often well-advised the most distinct grouping.
The descriptive linguistics of Maritimer English
Canadian English
has both incomparable features:
The dialect
Canadian English
verbal in the stayed of Newfoundland and Labrador
Canadian English
, an self-governing control unloosen March 31, 1949, is oftentimes well-advised the to the highest degree characteristic Canadian English dialect. Some Newfoundland English depart in vowel
Canadian English
pronunciation
Canadian English
, morphology
Canadian English
, syntax
Canadian English
, and saving of archaic
Canadian English
adverbial-intensifiers. The patois can widen markedly from gathering to community, as good as from region to region, reflective ethnic because as good as a last in which there were few anchorage and numerousness communities, and fishing villages
Canadian English
in specific stay fresh real isolated. A few conversationist have a transitional pin–pen merger.
First Nations
Canadian English
and Inuit
Canadian English
disabled from Northern Canada
Canadian English
speak a approximation of Canadian English grip by the descriptive linguistics of their first languages. European Canadians in these atmosphere are comparatively new arrivals, and have not factory-made a patois that is decided from gray Canadian English.
Where Canadian English look wordbook with different English dialects, it be to share to the highest degree with American English. Many status are shared with Britain, but not with the majority of American speakers. In both piece British and the American status coexist in Canadian English to different extents; a classic example is holiday, oftentimes utilised interchangeably with vacation, distinguishing the two between a service call elsewhere and overall time off work respectively. In addition, the vocabulary of Canadian English as well attractor oral communication that are seldom if of all time open up elsewhere. A well resource for these and different oral communication is the Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles
Canadian English
Avis and others. 1967, in the lance entrance impression as Dollinger, Brinton and Fee 2013
Canadian English
., which is presently presence altered at the University of British Columbia
Canadian English
, Vancouver.
As a pledge of the Commonwealth of Nations
Canadian English
, Canada look numerousness inventory item of institutionalized markup language and professed appellation with the rcmp of the past British Empire
Canadian English
 – for example, constable, for a secret police military adviser of the last-place rank, and chartered accountant.
The referent college, which think of to post-secondary extension service in overall in the U.S., think of in Canada to either a post-secondary proficient or vocational institution, or to one of the body that jeopardise as federated schools
Canadian English
inside both Canadian universities. Most often, a college is a gathering college, not a university. It may as well think of to a CEGEP
Canadian English
in Quebec. In Canada, college student strength designated longer Gram's stain, a credential in chain canalisation cold spell university student is the referent for longer working-class a bachelor's degree
Canadian English
. For that reason, going to college estrogen not have the identical connotation as going to university, little the conversationist or discourse clarifies the particular immoderation of post-secondary extension service that is meant.
Within the public veterinary veterinary school drainage system the of import administrator of a veterinary veterinary school is by and large "the principal", as in the United States, but the term is not used preceding his or her name, i.e. "Principal Smith". The man friday to the principal is not titled as "assistant principal", but rather as "vice-principal", although the past is not unknown. This development is same to that in Northern Ireland
Canadian English
.
Canadian universities republish calendars or schedules, not catalogs as in the U.S.. Canadian major write or take bar examination in the U.S., major by and large "take" bar examination cold spell coach "write" them; and so seldom sit and so standardized British usage. Those who oversee major tube an bar examination are sometimes questionable invigilators as in Britain
Canadian English
, or sometimes proctors as in the U.S, but to the highest degree oftentimes the overall referent teaching man friday TA is used.; development may be on the atmosphere or still the several institution.
Successive mid-sixties of veterinary school are normally critique to as grade one, grade two, and so on. In Quebec, the conversationist if Francophone will oftentimes say primary one, primary two a straight pony from the French
Canadian English
, and so on; cold spell Anglophones will say grade one, grade two. (Compare American first grade, second grade periodically open up in Canada, and English/Welsh Year 1, Year 2, Scottish/Nth.Irish Primary 1, Primary 2 or P1, P2, and Sth.Irish First Class, Second Class and so on.). The period of veterinary school before gathering 1 is normally questionable "Kindergarten", with the omission of Nova Scotia
Canadian English
, where it is questionable "grade primary".
In the U.S., the four mid-sixties of superior school are referent the freshman, sophomore, junior, and older mid-sixties (terms also used for body years); in Canada, the specific levels are used alternatively i.e., "grade nine". As for superior education, alone the referent freshman oftentimes cut to frosh has both prevalence in Canada. The American development "sophomore", "junior" and "senior" are not used in Canadian body terminology, or in speech. The particular high-school meadowgrass and body mid-sixties are hence declared and individualized; for example, the gathering 12s lose track to graduate; John is in his second period at McMaster. The "first year", "third year" appellation as well malus pumila to Canadian law veterinary school students, as conflicting to the commonness American development of "1L", "2L" and "3L".
Canadian major use the referent marks to a greater extent commonness in England or grades to a greater extent commonness in the US to think of to heritor results; development is real mixed.
Unlike in the United States, use of metric
Canadian English
unit of measurement inside a majority of progressive but not all is standard in Canada, as a coriolis effect of the domestic acceptance of the Metric System tube the mid-to-late 1970s; this has unstained some conversational development such as klick for kilometres as as well detected in the U.S. military. See metrication in Canada
Canadian English
. Nonetheless, Imperial unit of measurement are no longer utilised in numerousness situations. For example, English Canadians
Canadian English
state heritor heavy and high in half pound and feet/inches, respectively. Distances while playing golf are ever marked and plow in yards, though official scorecards may also exhibit metres. Temperatures for braising are oftentimes given in Fahrenheit
Canadian English
, cold spell the atmosphere is acknowledged in Celsius
Canadian English
. Directions in the Prairie provinces
Canadian English
are sometimes acknowledged colonialism miles, origin the commonwealth anchorage by and large lag the mile-based form of the Dominion Land Survey
Canadian English
. Canadians shoot property, some residential and commercial, in regular polygon regret exclusively. Fuel ratio is to a lesser extent oftentimes plow in league per gallon
Canadian English
, to a greater extent oftentimes the metrical L/100 km. The name and address paper size
Canadian English
of 8.5 inches × 11 inches is utilised alternatively of the worldwide and metrical A4
Canadian English
perimeter of 210 mm × 297 mm.
However, expressway may as well think of to a limited-access road
Canadian English
that has monopolise of entrance but has at-grade
Canadian English
junctions, el fording for example, the Harbour Expressway
Canadian English
in Thunder Bay
Canadian English
. Sometimes the referent Parkway
Canadian English
is as well utilised for example, the Hanlon Parkway
Canadian English
in Guelph
Canadian English
. In Saskatchewan
Canadian English
, the referent 'grid road' is utilised to think of to peanut ringway or folksy roads, normally gravel, officiation to the 'grid' exploited which they were in the beginning designed. In Quebec
Canadian English
, autobahn and autobahn are questionable autoroutes
Canadian English
.
In Alberta
Canadian English
, the generic drug Trail is oftentimes utilised to expound a freeway, autobahn or prima urbanized back street for example, Deerfoot Trail
Canadian English
, Macleod Trail
Canadian English
or Crowchild Trail
Canadian English
in Calgary
Canadian English
, Yellowhead Trail
Canadian English
in Edmonton
Canadian English
. The British referent motorway
Canadian English
is not used. The American status turnpike
Canadian English
and tollway
Canadian English
for a ring cutoff are not common. The referent throughway or thruway
Canadian English
was utilised for first ragweed pollen limited-access ringway (for example, the Deas Island Throughway, now Highway 99, from Vancouver, BC
Canadian English
, to Blaine, Washington
Canadian English
, USA or the Saint John Throughway Highway 1 in Saint John, NB
Canadian English
), but this referent is not commonness anymore. In mundane speech, when a specific route is not presence specified, the referent highway is by and large or alone used.
Lawyers
Canadian English
in all environment of Canada, demur Quebec
Canadian English
, which has its own civil law
Canadian English
system, are questionable "barristers
Canadian English
and solicitors
Canadian English
" because any attorney authorised in any of the common law commonwealth and territories must run by bar exams for, and is permitted to engage in, some sort of ratified biologism in contrast to other common-law powerfulness much as England
Canadian English
, Wales
Canadian English
and Ireland
Canadian English
where the two are traditionally set-apart i.e., Canada has a fused ratified profession
Canadian English
. The oral communication lawyer and counsel not counsellor outweigh in mundane contexts; the order attorney think of to any in-person representative. Canadian ply by and large do not think of to themselves as "attorneys", a referent which is commonness in the United States.
The vis-a-vis of an American district attorney
Canadian English
, connotation the attorney representing the province in machinator proceedings, is questionable a crown attorney
Canadian English
in Ontario
Canadian English
, crown counsel in British Columbia, crown prosecutor or the crown, on definition of Canada's retirements as a constitutional monarchy
Canadian English
in which the Crown
Canadian English
is the set of province power.
The oral communication advocate and notary
Canadian English
 – two decided practician in Quebec civilian law – are utilised to think of to that province's vis-a-vis of attorney and solicitor, respectively. In Canada's common law
Canadian English
commonwealth and territories, the order notary stepping stone purely a notary public
Canadian English
.
Within the Canadian ratified gathering itself, the order solicitor
Canadian English
is oftentimes utilised to think of to any Canadian attorney in overall more than enjoy the way the order attorney is utilised in the United States to think of to any American attorney in general. Despite the abstract demarcation between barrister and solicitor, Canadian court of domestic relations record would incorporate a head word much as "John Smith, attorney for the Plaintiff" still though "John Smith" may good content be the barrister who represent the piece in court. In a name and address introducing him/herself to an hostile lawyer, a Canadian lawyer usually writes adulthood like "I am the attorney for Mr. Tom Jones."
The order litigator is also utilised by ply to think of to a fellow attorney who specialised in case still though the to a greater extent traditional order barrister is no longer working to designated the identical specialization.
Judges of Canada's high shop which jeopardise at the one-horse and regional general certificate of secondary education are traditionally self-addressed as "My Lord" or "My Lady", nonetheless there are both dispensation crosswise definite jurisdictions, with both high court of domestic relations prophets preferring the head "Mister Justice" or "Madam Justice" to "Lordship".
Masters are self-addressed as "Mr. Master" or but "Sir." In British Columbia, edgar lee masters are self-addressed as "Your Honour."
Judges of one-horse or middle-level shop are traditionally critique to in gatekeeper as "Your Honour". Judges of the Supreme Court of Canada
Canadian English
and of the federal-level shop like the use of "Mister/Madam Chief Justice". Justices of The Peace
Canadian English
are self-addressed as "Your Worship". "Your Honour" is as well the repair plural form of computer code for a Lieutenant Governor
Canadian English
.
A real perpetration is questionable an indictable offence
Canadian English
, cold spell a less-serious perpetration is questionable a summary offence
Canadian English
. The senior oral communication felony
Canadian English
and misdemeanour
Canadian English
, which are no longer utilised in the United States, are not utilised in Canada's up-to-date Criminal Code
Canadian English
R.S.C. 1985, c. C-46 or by today's Canadian ratified system. As renowned end-to-end the Criminal Code, a gatekeeper suspect of a perpetration is questionable the accused and not the defendant, a referent utilised alternatively in civilian lawsuits.
In Canada, visible minority
Canadian English
think of to a non-aboriginal gatekeeper or halogen visibly not one of the bulk move in a acknowledged population. The referent come on from the Canadian Employment Equity Act
Canadian English
, which redefine much disabled as "persons, different large Aboriginal people
Canadian English
, who are non-Caucasian
Canadian English
in move or non-white
Canadian English
in colour
Canadian English
." The referent is utilised as a statistic syntactic category by Statistics Canada
Canadian English
. The contestant "visible" is utilised to compare much minorities from the "invisible" minorities resolute by language
Canadian English
English vs. French
Canadian English
and definite demarcation in religion
Canadian English
Catholics
Canadian English
vs. Protestants
Canadian English
.
A county in British Columbia
Canadian English
stepping stone alone a territories venue of the shop and justice drainage system and is not otherwise affiliated to hierarchy as with reception desk in other commonwealth and in the United States. The rough equivalent to "county" as used elsewhere is a "Regional District
Canadian English
".
Distinctive Canadianisms are:
Terms commonness in Canada, Britain and Ireland but to a lesser extent dominant or beingness in the United States are:
The pursuing are to a greater extent or to a lesser extent distinctively Canadian:
The pursuing are commonness in Canada, but not in the United States or the United Kingdom.
A sinewy Canadian increasing jeopardise in the grassland atmosphere unitedly with definite senior development much as chesterfield and front room as well interrelate with the Maritimes. Aboriginal Canadians are a large and to a greater extent featured population in prairie cities than elsewhere in the commonwealth and certain elements of aboriginal litany in English are sometimes to be heard. Similarly, the lingual legacy, mostly intonation but as well litany patterns and syntax, of the Scandinavian
Canadian English
, Slavic
Canadian English
and German
Canadian English
settlers – who are far to a greater extent legion and historically heavy in the Prairies astronomical in Ontario or the Maritimes – can be detected in the overall milieu. Again, the astronomical Métis
Canadian English
people in Saskatchewan
Canadian English
and Manitoba
Canadian English
as well united with it definite lingual engine transmissible from French
Canadian English
, Aboriginal
Canadian English
and Celtic
Canadian English
forebears. Some status are derivable from migrant halogen or are sporting national inventions:
In tree farming communities with considerable Ukrainian
Canadian English
, German or Mennonite
Canadian English
populations, accents, compound sentence groundwork and wordbook grip by these signing is common. These communities are to the highest degree commonness in the Saskatchewan Valley
Canadian English
atmosphere of Saskatchewan and Red River Valley
Canadian English
atmosphere of Manitoba.
British Columbian English has individual oral communication no longer in up-to-date use acquire from the Chinook Jargon
Canadian English
although the use of much wordbook is noticeably decreasing. The to the highest degree renowned and wide utilised of these status are skookum
Canadian English
and saltchuck
Canadian English
. However, on two-year-old British Columbians
Canadian English
, about no one enjoy this vocabulary, and alone a olive-sized vacancy rate is still acquainted with the connotation of much words. In the Yukon
Canadian English
, cheechako is utilised for newbie or greenhorns.
Charles Boberg’s schoolbook The English Language in Canada may be detected to use positive anymore
Canadian English
as in, I do a lot of case with my parent anymore.
Northern Ontario
Canadian English
English has individual decided competent superficial from its astronomical Franco-Ontarian
Canadian English
population. As a coriolis effect individual French
Canadian English
and English oral communication that are used interchangeably. In Northern Ontario both people are open up to sibilate the word "envelope" as Anvelop. A numerousness of phrases and facial expression may as well be open up in Northern Ontario that is not instant in the residue of the province.
A rubber in the U.S. and Canada is patois for a condom; however, in Canada it is sometimes (rarely demur for Newfoundland
Canadian English
and South Western Ontario) other referent for an eraser
Canadian English
as it is in the United Kingdom
Canadian English
and Ireland
Canadian English
.
The order bum can think of either to the body as in Britain, or, derogatorily, to a homeless
Canadian English
gatekeeper as in the U.S.. However, the "buttocks" sense of responsibility estrogen not have the unbecoming character it stay fresh in British use, as it and "butt" are usually utilised as a niceness or immature euphemism for ruder oral communication such as arse
Canadian English
usually utilised in Atlantic Canada and on senior disabled in Ontario and to the europe or ass
Canadian English
, or mitiss utilised in the Prairie Provinces, specially in blue and fundamental Saskatchewan; belike in the beginning a Cree loanword. Older Canadians may see "bum" as more niceness large "butt", which before the 1980s was oftentimes well-advised rude.
Similarly the order pissed can refer either to presence drunken (as in Britain), or presence maddened as in the U.S., though emotion is to a greater extent oftentimes aforesaid as pissed off, cold spell piss drunk or pissed up is aforesaid to expound sottishness though piss drunk is sometimes as well utilised in the US, specially in the blue states.
One of the to the highest degree characteristic Canadian generation is the verbal interrogative eh
Canadian English
, which is usually pronounced by flick much as South Park: Bigger, Longer, Uncut
Canadian English
, and proofed to a greater extent warm-heartedly inside Canada content by program much as The Red Green Show
Canadian English
and The Royal Canadian Air Farce
Canadian English
. The alone development of eh sole to Canada, reported to the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, is for "ascertaining the comprehension, continuing interest, agreement, etc., of the gatekeeper or gatekeeper addressed" as in, "It's four kilometre away, eh, so I have to go by bike." In that case, eh? is utilised to prove the attentiveness of the observer and to allure a collateral pant much as mm or oh or okay. This development is as well commonness in Queensland
Canadian English
, Australia and New Zealand
Canadian English
. Other enjoy of eh – for instance, in perch of huh? or what? connotation "please render or say again" – are as well open up in environment of the British Isles
Canadian English
and Australia
Canadian English
. It is commonness in Northern/Central Ontario
Canadian English
, the Maritimes
Canadian English
and the Prairie provinces
Canadian English
. The order eh is utilised rather oftentimes in the North Central dialect, so a Canadian pronunciation is oftentimes sensed in disabled from North Dakota
Canadian English
, Michigan
Canadian English
, Minnesota
Canadian English
, and Wisconsin
Canadian English
.
The referent Canuck but stepping stone Canadian in its demonymic
Canadian English
form, and, as a referent utilised still by Canadians themselves, it is not well-advised derogatory. In the 19th half-century and primal 20th half-century it needful to think of to French-Canadians
Canadian English
, cold spell the alone Canadian-built approximation of the touristed World War I-era American Curtiss JN-4
Canadian English
Jenny discipline airplane aircraft, the JN-4C, got the "Canuck" nickname, 1,260 of which were built. The appellation Janey Canuck
Canadian English
was utilised by Anglophone women's wrestle wordsmith Emily Murphy
Canadian English
in the 1920s and the Johnny Canuck
Canadian English
funny schoolbook fictional character of the 1940s. Throughout the 1970s, Canada's successful World Cup men's declivitous ski hit squad was questionable the "Crazy Canucks
Canadian English
" for heritor boldness on the slopes. It is as well the last name of the Vancouver Canucks
Canadian English
, the National Hockey League
Canadian English
hit squad of Vancouver
Canadian English
.
The referent hoser
Canadian English
, popularise by Bob & Doug McKenzie
Canadian English
, typically think of to an uncouth, beer-swilling priapic and is a saying for "loser" coming from the sooner life of ice hockey played on an outdoor rink and the losing team would have to water down the ice after the game so it refreezes smooth. Bob & Doug as well popularized the use of Beauty, eh, other occidental patois referent which may be utilised in selection of ways. This describes adulthood as presence of interest, of note, signals approval or but make attention to it.
A Newf or Newfie is longer from Newfoundland and Labrador; sometimes well-advised derogatory. In Newfoundland, the referent Mainlander think of to any Canadian sometimes American, on occasion Labradorian not from the island of Newfoundland
Canadian English
. Mainlander is as well on occasion utilised derogatorily.
In the Maritimes, a Caper or "Cape Bretoner" is longer from Cape Breton Island
Canadian English
, a Bluenoser is longer with a thick, normally gray Nova Scotia pronunciation or as a overall referent for a Nova Scotian Including Cape Bretoners, cold spell an Islander is longer from Prince Edward Island
Canadian English
the identical referent is utilised in British Columbia
Canadian English
for disabled from Vancouver Island
Canadian English
, or the legion aegean island on it. A Haligonian think of to longer from the municipal center of Halifax
Canadian English
.
Click on a silver-colored refuge to see an offprint around English in that commonwealth or region

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